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Power Supplies for Vacuum Thin-Film Depostion and Coating

Compiled by Terrence Thompson, Contributing Editor

This Vacuum Technology & Coating product showcase includes power supplies used in a wide variety of vacuum-based production deposition and coating applications.
 Deposition and coating systems require extremely dependable power supplies. Fortunately, a wide array exists to fit virtually any application. With increasingly demanding deposition and coating system requirements, and the ever present cost considerations for industrial and scientific applications, the expectations for power supplies increases.
 Power supplies provide outputs of DC or AC in a wide range of power levels. Power supplies can have primary outputs ranging from very low to hundreds of kilowatts with frequencies from DC to 13.56 MHz or beyond. Depending upon the application, voltage or current regulation may be more important. Current ratings also can range from low to very high. These are but a few considerations when selecting a power supply.
Options Abound
How crucial is size and are matching networks and cooling systems needed? What kind of output programming and control are needed and what specific computer or network digital interface needs must be met? There are many choices to meet the user needs.
 With DC supplies, there are steady and pulsed outputs. Typical DC power options include high-current, high-voltage and voltage-regulation. Pulsed DC supplies, for example, can improve surface uniformity in applications such as semiconductor wafer copper plating.
 For AC supplies, many factors must be considered. High-frequency power sources must deliver reliable power for continuous, demanding use in vacuum applications including vacuum processing such as PVD, RF sputtering, plasma etching or deposition and reactive ion etching.
Very Reliable Power Required
Analytical instrumentation power supply voltage requirements can range from just a few volts to several hundred thousand volts, often with multiple critical voltages in a particular instrument. Standard and custom high voltage power supplies are used in instruments for spectroscopy and many other analytical imaging and process applications. Voltage ripple (or lack thereof), stability over time, repeatability and accuracy are factors to consideration if reliable scientific data are the goal. For analytical instrumentation used in production process control, reliability is very important.


In the following product descriptions, vendors make legitimate distinctions to focus on specific intended applications so direct comparisons may be difficult. When in doubt, go to Vacuum Technology & Coating magazine’s home page at www.vactechmag.com and click on the advertiser links for additional details or telephone numbers for calling to discuss your specific application requirements.
Apex® RF Integrated Arc Management System for Thin-Film Processes
 The Advanced Energy Apex‚ RF power-delivery system now delivers state-of-the-art arc handling capabilities for all RF applications. The system provides advanced arc monitoring and suppression functionality. Key parameters, such as arc sensitivity and suppression times, are completely user-selectable, allowing the system to be extremely robust and virtually eliminating all false alarms. The arc management system is easily controlled via the Apex digital interface as well as through the optional Virtual Front Panel program. The field-proven arc handling system enables previously unavailable control of the plasma environment, reducing device damage and particulate generation, which results in improved process yield.



Cesar® RF Generator Series
 The complete line of Advanced Energy Cesar® RF generators is designed for advanced plasma applications, including solar PV. Available in a wide variety of frequencies and power levels, Cesar generators are certain to meet your most demanding requirements. Standard features include an active front panel, large LCD display, userfriendly software, analog and serial user interfaces, and manual controls for VarioMatchnetworks. Cesar generators are CE compliant, utilizing field-proven Class E architecture for compact, lightweight design. Modular design provides cost advantages, allowing these rugged generators to be offered at very attractive pricing.



Crystal® Power Supply
 Advanced Energy® ’s Crystal® resonant-circuit power supply is ideally suited for large-area glass coating applications, such as architectural, automotive, antireflective, and mirror applications. The Crystal platform is available in 60, 120, and 180 kW power levels, providing widerange, low-frequency sinusoidal process power for dual-magnetron sputtering. Designed specifically for use in a plasma environment, the Crystal power supply produces stable, low-arc energy and compensates for plasma variations—increasing throughput and film quality while maximizing target utilization.




Pinnacle® Diamond 8, 10, and 15 kW DC Power Supply
In both process and bias applications, the Advanced Energy Pinnacle® Diamond DC power supply provides the highest efficiency and power factor commercially available, resulting in the lowest operating and installed cost in the industry. Remarkable Pinnacle process consistency and control deliver the additional benefits of significantly reduced variation and higher yields—all from one compact unit. The field-proven Pinnacle platform provides high performance and reliability; fast, configurable arc response, resulting in lowarc damage; and numerous display/control options.



E’Wave® Bi-Polar, Pulsed-DC Power Supply
Advanced Energy’s E’Wave® bi-polar, pulsed-DC power supply improves surface uniformity and reduces additive consumption for the copper plating phase of dual-damascene process flow (DDPF) applications. The E’Wave power supply gives you a competitive edge whether you’re electroplating wafers in a production environment or developing new copper processes for the burgeoning copper marketplace. The E’Wave power supply converts 208 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 3-phase input power to three, independent, pulsed-DC channels. Each channel consists of one, independently-driven, bi-polar power source. Each channel is capable of producing, storing, and running up to 15 current-controlled or voltage-controlled waveforms—which can be changed during a run.



HFV® Variable-Frequency (~2 MHz) Generators for PVD, CVD, and Etch Applications
 Advanced Energy’s HFV® series of generators offers 2 MHz, digitally synthesized, variable frequency with output power levels of 3 kW, 5 kW, and 8 kW. The HFV, designed for 200 and 300 mm semiconductor applications, provides flexibility though digitally synthesized, variable-frequency output and microprocessor control. The output frequency range is 1.765 MHz to 2.165 MHz. Frequency tuning parameters that reside in firmware may be customized to ensure reliable operation with a wide variety of chamber configurations and process recipes. Its self-diagnostics provide an operating history and test for 14 different types of internal supply failures.



Litmas ® RPS 1501 and 3001 Remote Plasma Source Platform
The Advanced Energy Litmas® RPS is the only fully integrated, remote, inductive plasma source and power delivery system available in a high-conductance, low-surface-area geometry. The Litmas RPS is well-suited to deliver reactive gas species for process applications such as wafer pre-clean, photoresist strip, and atomic layer deposition (ALD). In addition, its high power density and high conductance make it the ideal platform for post-process, exhaust gas abatement. Its plug-and-play installation, uniquely wide matching range, and small footprint reduce time-to-market for new chamber development. The Litmas RPS’ solid-state power-matching design rapidly delivers up to 3 kW of stable radio-frequency (RF) power, enabling faster changing, sub-90 nm and 300-mm processes. Its extremely low source-to-source variability enhances end-user process development and yields.



Navigator ® Digital Matching Network
The Advanced Energy Navigator® matching network provides advanced match technology for rapid, accurate, and reliable matching across a wide range of load impedances. Equipped with microprocessor-controlled stepper motor circuitry and digital, userselectable tuning algorithms, the Navigator matching network minimizes reflected power by automatically tuning the complex impedance of a coupled plasma. An optional, internal Z’Scan® RF sensor provides realtime measurement and analysis of process power and impendence, enabling you to identify and significantly reduce process variability. In addition, with Advanced Energy’s optional Virtual Front Panel (VFP) software, you can monitor and command the matching network through a personal computer.



Ovation ™ Very-High Frequency (VHF) Power Delivery System
The Advanced Energy Ovationfully-integrated, power delivery system enables faster, higher-precision processes, such as those required for demanding narrow-linewidth, dielectric etch processes through implementation of a unique power delivery scheme. It is the first to accurately deliver power into a non-50-ohm environment without an external sensor, reacting faster than traditional power supplies. The use of 60 MHz reduces voltage potential across the plasma sheath, minimizing ion etch damage, thus improving film quality and yields. Its embedded measurement technology enables previously unavailable insight into chamber plasma parameters and performance.



New! Paramount ™ RF Power-Delivery System Offers the Most Precise Control in the Industry
This half-rack, 3 kW RF generator from Advanced Energy delivers exceptionally precise process power at 13.56 MHz fixed or variable frequencies. Able to handle in real time the most abrupt plasma-impedance changes, the Paramount system enables faster transitions, shorter process steps, and reduced process times for next-generation technology nodes. Its impedance measurement technology rivals the accuracy of a network analyzer, while Clairvoyant Frequency Tuningtunes virtually instantaneously, exponentially faster than any other product on the market. The result is truly unprecedented accuracy, repeatability, and process control in and outside of non-50 _ loads—without the overly inflated price tag typically attached to breakthrough performance and technology.



PEII/RAS Low-Frequency Sinusoidal Power for Dual Magnetron Reactive Sputtering
The Advanced Energy low-frequency PEII series provides 40 kHz pulse width modulation (PMW) from 5 to 60 kW and features enhanced arc control and internal load matching—with no external combining hardware stored energy, and its superior arc control enables higher-quality film deposition over other AC products. The PEII power supply is easily expandable (to up to 60 kW) in 10 kW increments. When paired with the RAS accessory, it enables cost-effective, single–cathode, dual-anode, reactive-sputtering processes and resolves the disappearing anode phenomenon common to reactive processes.



Pinnacle ® Series DC Magnetron Power Supplies
The field-proven AE® Pinnacle® series of DC-sputtering power supplies offers fast configurable arc response with the least arc damage commercially available—less than 1 mJ per 1 kW of output. Coupled with precise process control, the Pinnacle series delivers maximum process efficiency. The 20 kW unit comes in a compact (3 U), versatile package with numerous display/control options. This power series requires no tap changes, with a 4:1 impedance range. Its target conditioning cycle (TCC) minimizes conditioning time for new targets, and its joule mode optimizes energy delivery, with output repeatability of ±0.1%. This series is also CE marked.



The Pinnacle ® Plus + Pulsed-DC Power Supply for Critical Reactive Processes
 The AE® Pinnacle® Plus+ product line enables higher film quality for reactive sputtering, bias, and high-quality metal sputtering applications. Available in single- and dual-output 5 kW and single-output 10 kW models, this product line is ideal for extending the performance of existing processes as well as for expanding the possibilities for developing new, previously unachievable DC processes. The Pinnacle Plus+ line provides individually controllable, dual-output, pulsed-DC power from a single unit; increased process flexibility (up to 350 kHz pulsing, wide tap range, variable duty cycle up of a minimum of 55% on time or a maximum of 45% reverse time), active front panel; and CE compliance.



Pulsar & trade; High-Power DC Pulsing Accessory
When straight DC sputtering proves inadequate, AE® ’s Pulsar DC Pulsing Accessory provides improved process quality, uniformity, as well as increased throughput and yield. Featuring 40 kW, 40/40 kW, and 80 kW pulsing functions, the Pulsar accessory goes beyond handling arcs when they occur; it manages charges to prevent arcing from occurring at all. Thus, the Pulsar accessory reduces contanimation, splattering, and crazing in such varied applications as residential and architectural glass coating, flat panel display manufacturing, roll-to-roll coating, and headlight metalizing. The Pulsar single, add-on solution is designed to retrofit to old and new systems alike, without the need to add new power supplies or change established control schemes.



Advanced Energy Industries
Fort Collins, CO
Contact: Marna Shillman, Global Marketing Communications
Director Tel: 1-970-407-6280
CB Series High Frequency RF Power Supplies
 RF generators from the Comdel CB product family are available in power ranges from 50 to 5000 Watts with standard fixed frequencies from 2 to 60 MHz. The solidstate design provides precise and repeatable power control, ultra-stable output and low cost of ownership. The design of the CB series is based on Comdel’s proven RF amplifier technology. Features include forward or delivered power mode regulation, safety compliance, patented “S Technology” for unparalleled stability, and small, lightweight packaging from 15 lbs for the CB600 to 95 lbs for the CB5000. The CB series is designed to meet the performance demand in RF-driven plasma systems for semiconductor processing. Applications include etch, RIE, parallel plate, ICP, RF sputtering, CVD and PVD, as well as induction and dielectric heating processes in industrial systems.



CDX Series Dual Frequency RF Power Supplies
Comdel has combined a high and low frequency RF generator to create one compact, versatile power supply. The CDX Series offers ease of control, small physical size, and the ability to withstand large changes of load impedance without failure or premature foldback. The CDX dual frequency power supply comes in a 1000 or 2000 Watt design. The high frequency (HF) section of the CDX provides 600 or 1000 Watts of power, with optional frequencies from 2 to 60 MHz. The low frequency (LF) section can deliver 600 or 1000 Watts, with optional fixed or variable frequencies ranging from 20 kHz to 2 MHz. The LF section also features an optional phase locked output, which eliminates the need for matching networks in many applications. Sharing a common cooling system and DC power source, the CDX simplifies facility requirements and reduces spare parts inventory, which reduces OEM costs without sacrificing performance.



CX Series High Frequency RF Power Supplies with Microprocessor Control
The Comdel CX series RF generators are all solid-state generators with a power range from 600W to 10KW and frequencies from 2 to 30MHz fixed with optional frequency agility. The rugged CX series provides unparalleled reliability, utilizing the highest quality parts throughout with components typically run at half their rated tolerances. Each power source produces maximum transfer of power into a 50 ohm resistive load and is designed to withstand large deviations in load impedance without failure. Comdel’s CX series power supplies use patented “S Technology” for process stability. This stabilizing technology reduces process development time and improves process repeatability. Nearly all of the CX series generators carry the ETL Listed Mark of product safety compliance and have passed SEMI F47 voltage sag immunity testing. The CX series generators are also designed to meet CE Mark directives and standards.



CV Series Very High Frequency (VHF) RF Power Supplies
Comdel CV series power supplies offer stable VHF power at frequencies from 30 to 80 MHz. Configured within Comdel's standard control and monitoring package, the CV series offers exceptional ease of operation. RS-232 and analog controls are provided as standard; DeviceNet is optional. Synthesizerdriven, frequency agile configurations are also available on all CV series models. These VHF solid-state generators are ideal for use in VHF plasma systems, CW and pulsed laser systems, and small geometry induction heating applications.



CLX Series Low Frequency RF Power Supplies with Microprocessor Control
The Comdel CLX series RF generators are all solidstate generators with a power range from 600W to 10KW and operate at any fixed frequency from 20 kHz to 2 MHz or with optional frequency agility +/- 10% of center frequency. In addition to offering superior performance in the field, the CLX series gives you both an analog and digital input/output interface. The programmable digital interface is accessible through the front panel or remotely through an RS-232 or optional DeviceNet interface to match your system requirements. All units come complete with a front panel LCD display and microprocessor control. Nearly all of the CLX series generators carry the ETL Listed Mark of product safety compliance and have passed SEMI F47 voltage sag immunity testing. The CLX series generators are also designed to meet CE Mark directives and standards.



CLF Series Low Frequency RF Power Supplies
TSeries low frequency power supplies provide stable process power up to 5kW at any fixed frequency over the range of 20 to 450 KHz. These power sources may be operated in “fixed frequency” or auto-tuned up to ± 15% bandwidth. In many applications, the combination of auto-tune and excess power headroom will allow delivery of power to changing reactive loads without the necessity of a mechanically tuned matching network. Protective circuitry prevents over-voltage and overcurrent failures. The CLF 5000 provides stable, reliable, trouble-free RF power for plasma systems worldwide and is CE Marked for product safety and SEMI F47 compliant.



CXH High Frequency, High Power RF Power Sources
The Comdel CXH series hybrid, high frequency power sources provide stable, reliable RF power for plasma applications and industrial heating. The CXH series is designed to operate at a fixed frequency from 2 to 40 MHz at power levels from 15kW to 100 kW. The solid-state driver section features microprocessor control for precise power control and diagnostic monitoring. Broadband phase linear circuitry in the driver section enhances system stability and eliminates driver tuning. The rugged amplifier design is well suited for demanding applications where stability and reliability in the presence of erratic loads is required.





CPS Series High Frequency RF Power Supplies
The Comdel CPS series high frequency power supplies are an economical and reliable RF power solution for plasma applications. Designed to operate at a fixed frequency from 2 MHz to 80 MHz, with a power range from 100W to 1.25KW. The CPS series has been in the field worldwide since it’s introduction in 1988 and has achieved some of the highest “Mean Time Between Failure” (MTBF) ratings in the industry. To achieve this distinction, top quality parts are used throughout the CPS design and typically run at half their rated tolerances. Output transistors are sourced adhering to tight specifications, then tested and beta-matched to assure reliability. For maximum performance at an economical cost, the parts count is kept to a minimum in the CPS series generators. This streamlined design gets the results OEM customers want: a high MTBF at a competitive cost.



XDC 1000 DC Power Supply
 The high-quality design of Comdel’s XDC 1000 assures ultra reliability, while the small size fits easily into your system. What's more, with the XDC’s flexible options and controls, you don't need to purchase a new power supply every time you make a change in your system. Current and voltage control capabilities are standard with each supply. Additional features include self-limiting circuitry that eliminates short-circuit failures, low stored energy that reduces arc damage, and a wide range of input and output voltages. Comdel's XDC is the ideal supply for reactive PVD sputtering, DC Bias and hard-coating applications.



ESC-HV Electrostatic Chuck Power Supply
 The ESC-HV, Comdel’s latest electrostatic chuck power supply, can be configured to deliver from 6 to 10kV of power for reliable handling in large surface processes. Equipped with low stored energy and builtin current limiting, the ESC-HV will safeguard your process from surges and arcs. This user-friendly design contains parameter adjustments through variable controls, and is fully programmable to give the user maximum flexibility. Contained in a compact 3.5” × 9.5” × 12.5” chassis, weighing 2.5 lbs, the ESC-HV can be located in any convenient location and in any orientation. There are no special requirements needed for cooling and shielding.



ESC Electrostatic Chuck Power Supplies
Comdel’s ESC suite of electrostatic chuck power supplies offer the most stable electrical design with the ultimate in package flexibility. These compact, lightweight supplies come complete with NRTL product safety marks, built in RF filters for device protection and unsurpassed clamping for electrostatic wafer processing applications. Available in 1, 2, 3, & 5kV packages, the ESC series voltage sources provide stable power for electrostatic chucks used in semiconductor wafer transfer. Additional package options include an imbedded OEM model, a 5kV unit with unipolar output (available in positive or negative polarity), and the extra small ESC mini measuring 2.5” × 4.25” × 9.5”.



RF Power with Turbotune Technology
Comdel’s entire RF product line including low frequency, high frequency, very high frequency, and dual frequency generators are offered with optional Turbotune Technology for maximum energy transfer with improved speed and reliability. Comdel’s Turbotune provides fast frequency tuning that can be custom configured for optimum performance. Variations in tune technology are system and process dependant. Turbotune utilizes software solutions through direct digital synthesis, a hardware option with phase detectors or combinations of both technologies to provide frequency tuning in the ideal configuration to match process requirements. Optimizing tuning designs can eliminate frequency overshoot, provide continuous frequency steps to avoid wafer damage, ensure tuning and locking in a fraction of a second, with easily adjustable parameters. Turbotune Technology improves speed and reliability, and reduces system cost by replacing a complex autotuning network with a small, simple fixed network.
Comdel, Inc.
Contact: MaryBeth Masterson, Marketing Manager
Tel: 1-978-282-0620 x102
BIG-P and ARCtelligent ® High Power Supplies for Improved Coating Quality at High Sputtering Rates
 Huettinger’s Series BIG-P is a family of medium frequency power supplies designed for depositing thin coatings on large area substrates such as glass and plastic films. These power supplies create a plasma that is used to sputter specialized materials onto the substrate. The Series BIG-P are available with outputs of 100, 150, 200 and 300 kW, making this the broadest line of power supplies available on the market. A flexible frequency range of 20 to 50 kHz enables users to optimize the power supply for individual processes. This assures high deposition rates while minimizing the occurrence of arcs. For the Series BIG P, proven worldwide, Huettinger has developed a brand new arc management system. In the event of an arc, the ARCtelligent® sensor technology immediately reacts to stabilizes the process. According to Huettinger, improved process parameters will yield even better coating results. Residual energy and plasma off-time have been reduced to 10 percent of their previous values. Adjustment of the various arc parameters can be made through Huettinger’s microprocessor controlled front panel or via a remote interface. This makes process setup and operation user-friendly and efficient. Best of all, ARCtelligent® has been added into the BIG P product family at no additional cost to the end-user. Improving performance without charging more is just another way Huettinger adds value to your operations.www.huettinger.com



Series SCALO Family Of DC Power Supplies
High power density combined with enormous flexibility make Huettinger’s Series SCALO the most compact 30 kW DC plasma power supply unit available on the market. Due to its scaleable architecture, up to four modules may be connected in parallel, resulting in a total power output of up to 120 kW. For lower power requirements, a 20 kW module is also available. The SCALO is suitable for a wide spectrum of plasma process applications. Equipped with a new type of arc management system and having very little stored energy, SCALO can be used to deposit thin films with superior characteristics, thus dramatically enhancing productivity. A variety of data interfaces allow for both process data acquisition and power supply control. The power supplies provide reliable power for a wide range of applications including a broad spectrum of DC sputtering applications. These include high-power applications such as the deposition of copper and tantalum during semiconductor fabrication, or the deposition of high quality ITO layers on flat-panel display substrates. SCALO provides the process energy required for hard coating processes as well as the deposition of optical and decorative coatings. SCALO features ARCtelligent, Huettinger’s new intelligent arc management system that is both fast and highly effective. Combined with the benefit of extremely low stored energy, this yields films with superior characteristics while significantly enhancing productivity. Detection settings may be adjusted through any one of a number of data interfaces. ARCtelligentadvances arc management to a new level of performance. SCALO’s modular design means flexibility in power delivery. Modules may be conveniently combined or disconnected for scaling the power available for individual process requirements. Total power outputs from 20 to 120 kW are obtainable in increments of 20 or 30 kW. All SCALO modules are available in water-cooled and air-cooled versions.
Huettinger Electronic Inc.
Farmington, CT
Tel: 1-860-255-6555
R-Series power generators
The Kurt J. Lesker Company R-Series RF power generators are ideal for magnetron sputtering and plasma etching with available output ranges from 300 W to 3 kW at a 13.56 MHz fixed frequency. All units are air cooled to exceed the most stringent vacuum processing demands. Available features include: master and slave modes, automatic and matching networks, programmable high-speed pulsing, and CE marking for all R-Series units. Various control modes allow you to regulate DC and RF voltage as well as forward and load power leveling. Complete packages are available that include the power supply, automatic matching network, matching network controller, and all connecting cables that make ordering simple and quick. www.lesker.com



Ion Source Power Supply
The Kurt J. Lesker Company Ion Source Power Supply system is specifically designed to power the KJLC filamentless ion sources. The compact, rack mountable unit is 5 1/4 inches high and less than 18 inches deep, including all connections. The unit is capable of supplying an ion energy voltage up to 1200 eV and an output current up to 67 mA. All internal connections are keyed header/socket connections. Control voltages are derived from a high efficiency 300 watt supply. The overall efficiency of the supply is over 80%. The power supply is designed to allow complete manual control of all ion source functions. Individual digital meters are used to constantly display operating parameters. Standard ten-turn trimpots adjust each of the three power supply levels. Individual supplies and displays includeAnode, Emitter andAccelerator. Momentary “On” and “Standby” buttons control the output to the gun and LEDs indicate whether or not the source interlocks are satisfied and whether or not the source has started. www.lesker.com



M.A.P.S. Family of Power Supplies
The Kurt J. Lesker Company M.A.P.S. power supply is a versatile unit typically used for applications involving heating and evaporation in a vacuum environment. Its modular design allows the unit to be configured with a variety of options. Standard features include a phase angle fired SCR to control power delivery. The M.A.P.S. power supplies are available in the models below and are appropriate with the applications described. Model HTR is for process heating applications including substrate heating with quartz lamps; substrate heating with custom elements (graphite, etc); and bakeout heaters. Model EVP is for basic thermal evaporation applications including boats; crucibles; and filaments. Model HTE is for high temperature evaporation (typically used with a furnace style source for higher melting temperature materials) including high current evaporation with optional step down transformer (200 to 400 amps); and high temperature evaporation with optional step down transformer (up to 50 amps). Model LTE is for low temperature evaporation up to 20 amps for the evaporation of organic materials. M.A.P.S. power supplies can be configured with output power up to 8 kW and are available with computer driven or manual switching networks that enable a single supply to drive several sources. Custom configurations are readily available as are a full line of accessories such as heaters and evaporation sources.
Kurt J. Lesker Company
Clairton, PA
 Contact: Duane Bingaman, Vice President, Sales & Marketing
Tel: 1-412-387-9200 or 1-800-245-1656
E-mail:  ped@lesker.com
R*evolution ® Remote Plasma Source
MKS Instruments’ R*evolution® Remote toroidal plasma source delivers up to 6 kW of plasma power and up to 5 slm flow of clean radicals to the process, making ashing rates twice as fast as more conventional technologies. The high performance capabilities of the R*evolution extend far beyond strip and etch. This all-in-one remote plasma source is also ideal for advanced applications that include wafer pre-cleaning, thin film deposition, and material/surface modifications. The R*evolution's simple, compact and selfcontained design allows for installation directly on the process chamber. Because of its efficiency and lower cost, the R*evolution remote plasma source significantly reduces overall investment and tool operating costs. www.mksinst.com



Mid-Frequency NOVA ® Series RF Generators
MKS Instruments’ ENI® ’s NOVA RF plasma generators are compact, high reliability, mid-frequency RF sources for PECVD and etch applications. DSP-Based power control provides excellent control, and stability for reliable, repeatable processing. Advanced features such as automatic frequency tuning enable fast and reliable methods of impedance matching to a plasma load. Models include the NOVA-25 generator with rated power of 2.5 kW and the NOVA-50 generator with 5 kW rated power, both at key frequency of 2 MHz. Mid-frequency models operate between 1 and 4 MHz with key frequency at 2 MHz. www.mksinst.com



Mid-Frequency Spectrum® RF Plasma Generators
MKS Instruments’ ENI® ’s Spectrum 11002 mid-frequency RF generators are available in 11 kW of power at 2 MHz. Spectrum generators feature high power density, excellent stability, generous power margins and high reliability for lower cost of ownership and improved yield, wafer to wafer and run to run. These generators contain sophisticated control systems which enable such features as automatic frequency tuning. Mid-frequency models operate between 1 and 4 MHz with key frequency at 2 MHz. www.mksinst.com



High-Frequency SurePower ™ RF Plasma Generators
The MKS SurePowerplatform of RF plasma generators is the most advanced class of 13.56 MHz generators commercially available. The SurePowerarchitecture incorporates state-of-the-art RF topologies, patented intrinsic power amplifier protection, improved design margins, and embedded V-I probe sensors to achieve the highest reliability, reproducibility, and accuracy of any generator in the marketplace today. The platform offers the highest power (13 kW) at 13.56 MHz in a 3U height package. Optional auto frequency tuning allows the use of fixed matching networks for faster tuning, greater overall system reliability, and lower cost. SurePower™ is available in power levels from 3.5 kW to 13.0 kW and provides exceptional performance, higher power levels than competitive offerings, greatest delivered power to the plasma, and excellent reliability. SurePower RF power generators are designed for all 13.56 MHz applications including: PECVD, HDPCVD, PVD, ALD, etch, and strip for the manufacture of integrated circuits, flat panel displays, and data storage devices. www.mksinst.com



High-Frequency Spectrum ® RF Plasma Generators
MKS Instruments ENI® ’s Spectrum Model 3013 RF generator provides 3 kW of power at 13.56 MHz. Spectrum generators feature high power density, excellent stability, generous power margins and high reliability for lower cost of ownership and improved yield, wafer to wafer and run to run. Integrated auto frequency tuning eliminates the need for a matching network. High-frequency models typically operate at 13.56 MHz, a frequency most commonly used for plasma processes. www.mksinst.com



High-Frequency Genesis GHW RF Plasma Generators
MKS Instruments ENI® ’s Genesis Series is a production proven, rack-mountable, RF plasma generator platform that provides power from 1.25 kW to 5 kW at 13.56 MHz. Genesis generators feature high reliability, unconditional RF stability, precise DSP-based control and load mismatch protection. Models include the GHW 12 (1.25 kW), GHW-25 (2.5 kW), and GHW-50 (5 kW). High-frequency models typically operate at 13.56 MHz, a frequency most commonly used for plasma processes. www.mksinst.com



High-Frequency ACG RF Plasma Generators
MKS Instruments ENI® ’s ACG Series is a family of lower power microprocessor-controlled RF plasma generators. The ACG features precise power control, low power operation, unconditional RF stability, and load mismatch protection. Models include the ACG-3B with 300 watts output power, the ACG-6B with 600 Watts output power, and the ACG-10B with 1000 watts output power. High-frequency models typically operate at 13.56 MHz, a frequency most commonly used for plasma processes. www.mksinst.com



Extended-Frequency RF Plasma Generators
MKS also offers extended-frequency RF plasma generators in both 27.12 MHz/2.5 kW (GEW2527) and 40.68 MHz/3 kW (GEW3040) models. www.mksinst.com
Optima® II Plasma Generators
Building on the production-proven Optima, the MKS Optima® II is the next generation high performance, modular DC Plasma power supply system for Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processes. Capable of providing scalable DC Power from 12.5 kW up to 50 kW, Optima® II offers arc control and management that ensures reliable arc suppression with low arc energy, Joules mode for total energy dose control, and high accuracy for high yield thin film processing. Higher power systems required in FPD applications can be scaled up using the same modular architecture. www.mksinst.com



Optima Continuous DC Generators
The MKS Instruments ENI® Optimaseries is a family of highly reliable, accurate, and flexible DC generators in power levels ranging from 5 to 60 kW or higher. DC power output is provided through the entire safe operating area without tap changes. In the Optima series, low intensity arc management is automatic, bipolar, fast and very low energy. The CE marked Optima series DC generators exhibit exceptional ±0.1% accuracy and linearity for advanced process repeatability, chamber-to-chamber and wafer-to-wafer. The product line has space-efficient 3U-rack height per 20 kW. Models include the following power levels: 5 kW, 7.5 kW, 10 kW, 15 kW, 20 kW, 40 kW, 60 kW and higher. www.mksinst.com



RPG Pulsed DC Generators
The MKS Instruments ENI® RPG series is a family of pulsed DC generators in power levels from 5 to 10 kW in a single 3U chassis. RPG generators provide asymmetric bipolar and unipolar pulsed DC power while maintaining the exceptional accuracy, repeatability and flexibility of the Optima continuous DC generators. RPG generators offer user-adjustable frequency and duty cycle controls. Frequency is adjustable from 25 kHz to 125 kHz or 50 kHz to 250 kHz depending on model making it possible to find the optimal process parameters for a wide variety of films. Duty cycle can be adjusted between 0 and 40% to enhance film uniformity. Built in interfaces include 9-pin digital RS-232/422/485 digital interfaces include and 15/25/37 pin analog. Optional DeviceNetand Profibus. www.mksinst.com



ASTex ® SmartPower ® Intelligent Microwave Power Generators
MKS Instruments’ SmartPower AX2500 Series intelligent microwave power generators consists of three models which cover a spectrum of continuous microwave power from 250 W to 6 kW. The compact AX2500 design architecture incorporates MKS field-proven technology, and combines new design features aimed at improved performance and lower cost of ownership. All generators share a common, modular architecture and improved power measurement, feedback and control for increased process control and repeatability. Models include the AX2520 with maximum performance of 2 kW, the AX2530 at 3 kW, and the AX2560 at 6 kW. Frequency output is 2.455GHz ±15 MHz.
 MKS Instruments, Inc.
 Contact: Applications Engineering
Tel: 1-978-284-4000
E-mail:  mks@mksinst.com
Power Supplies for Arc and Resistive Element Lamps
Newport Corporation-Oriel offers a broad line of power supplies for arc and resistive element lamps. We have over thirty years of experience delivering dependable, rugged power supplies for demanding research and OEM applications. All power supplies incorporate the latest digital technology and boast impressive regulation and light ripple specifications. Fully featured models include built-in self-diagnostics, remote computer control operation and an option to add a photofeedback light intensity controller. The Arc Lamp models are designed to operate 50-1600 Watt Hg, Xe, and HgXe DC Short Arc Lamps and include PFC circuitry enabling constant power control operation. The Resistive Element models are designed to operate 10 to 1000W QTH Lamps and a variety of Infrared Elements; they deliver a constant current making them ideal for radiometric applications. Also, a unique soft start feature prevents damage from in-rush current reducing thermal shock effects. Custom configurations can also be designed for high volume OEM applications upon request.



Newport Corporation-Oriel
Stratford, CT
Contact: Bill Anderson
Tel: 1-203-377-8282
E-mail:  bill.anderson@newport.com
Low Voltage, High Current Power Supplies
The R.D. Mathis “LV Series” power supplies are low voltage, high current AC and uniquely designed for thermal evaporation. The power supply's primary use in the thin film industry is supplying power to resistive evaporation sources. The low voltage, high current AC power supplies were designed to meet a growing need for versatility and reliability in the industry. Both units incorporate a hand held remote control that displays amperage and voltage outputs while allowing an operator more freedom to move closer to the viewing port or the monitoring instrumentation. The low voltage, high current tap switch enables voltage range changes with ease and without having to relocate bulky cables. The units are SCR controlled and can receive up to 4 different type input signals to operate in a semi-automatic mode. The current limiting, soft start and interlock switches make these units extremely user friendly and easy to operate. Available in either 4 kW (800 amps @ 5volts) or 7.5 kW (1,500 amps @ 5 volts), the conservative power ratings allow the units to run cool, while rugged construction and quality components make them reliable. Also available are 250 amp and 500 amp welding cables, cut to size, with a variety of terminal lugs (installed) to complete your power set-up.





R.D. Mathis Company
Long Beach, CA
Tel: 1-562-426-7049

Thin-Film Deposition Rate Monitoring and Controller Product Showcase

Compiled by Terrence Thompson, Contributing Editor
This Vacuum Technology & Coating product showcase includes the thin-film deposition rate monitoring and controlling equipment used in a wide variety of production, R&D and other thin-film deposition applications. (Also, see the related Annual Power Supplies for Vacuum Thin-Film Deposition and Coating Product Showcase)
 Depositing thin films requires that you must know both the precise rate of deposition and how to alter or control same. Deposition monitors/controllers determine film thickness during the coating/deposition process itself by acquiring continuous rate and thickness data. Depending upon the item being coated, inprocess monitoring and control may be desirable. In other applications, checking the finished film is certainly sufficient.
Getting and Maintaining Control
There are several ways to monitor and control thin-film deposition parameters as well as ways to characterize the deposited films and coatings. Knowing exactly what materials are being deposited, the deposition rates, film thicknesses and uniformity can make a significant difference in process costs as well as suitability for the task at hand.
 Quartz crystal monitors are mass monitors. QCM deposition monitors only provide continuous rate and thickness data. There are differences in the frequency with which measurements are made which makes a difference. Monitors do not control deposition rates.
 Deposition controllers automatically control the deposition rate, typically by adjusting the deposition power as required to maintain the desired rate. Their main advantage of controllers is that they provide very accurate rate control that results in more-consistent coatings. Controllers provide mass programming which is typically described in terms of density, Z-ratio or tooling factor.
 Optical transmission monitoring works for transparent substrates (optical density) and are widely used with many variations on the theme. Sensors are specified by frequency range in wavelength (nm). Also, the number of inputs and type can be used to index the substrate and thickness of film while monitoring the wavelength and coating rate. Associated controller outputs can help model the transmission curve or signal the process to terminate each layer when desired thicknesses are achieved.
 With non-transparent substrate optical reflection sensors, the frequency (wavelength) range and sensor polarization is checked. Controllers monitor the index of substrate, index and thickness of film, monitoring wavelength and coating rate. Controller outputs can model a transmission curve and signal to terminate each layer.


In the following product descriptions, vendors make distinctions to focus on specific intended applications so direct comparisons may be difficult. When in doubt, go to Vacuum Technology & Coating magazine’s home page at  and click on the advertiser links for additional details or telephone numbers f or calling to discuss your specific application requirements.
NOTE: A separate “Product Showcase —Thick- and Thin-Film Thickness and Flatness Metrology Equipment” will follow in the Vacuum Technology & Coating August 2007 issue.
Phase II-J Retrofitable Computer Control for Sputtering Systems
 AJA International’s LabView based Phase II-J is a field retrofitable computer control system for magnetron sputtering systems. This straightforward, user friendly control system utilizes a large, flat-screen laptop in a 19-inch rack drawer connected to a single 7-inch high × 19-inch wide rack mount hardware module. The back panel of the hardware module is populated with connectors to interface to all aspects of the sputtering system. The Phase II-J control system allows the user to operate in either the “manual mode” or the “automated processing mode”. In the “automated processing mode,” the user designs process “layers” which are then compiled and saved as a “process.” The
system allows 10 unique user entry points, which are accessible only by password, limiting access to a user’s layers and preventing unexpected corruption of a user’s saved processes. The standard Phase II-J control system will accommodate up to five DC power supplies, four RF power supplies, one 4-way DC switchbox, one 3-way RF switchbox, (4) process gases, closed loop automatic pressure control and substrate temperature control. Processes are aborted if plasma is not detected. Special “soak layers” can be easily incorporated into the process. Finally, data logging is standard with an adjustable refresh period. Process data can be downloaded to common spreadsheet programs.
AJA International, Inc.
Scitute, MA
Tel.: 1-781-545-7365
TIC Controller with Six-Gauge and Capacitance Manometer Capability
The BOC Edwards TIC instrument controller is a compact instrument controller with a large clear graphical display, an intuitive user interface and serial communications providing full remote control. It is supplied with a WindowsPC program which provides a comprehensive data logging ability, and enables full setup and control from a PC using the RS232 interfaces as standard. The controller supports and automatically recognizes up to three gauges from the BOC Edwards range, with coverage from 2000 to 6.6 × 10-10 mbar. The TIC is available in three-channel, six-channel and six-channel capacitance manometer capable versions. When combined with the optional external relay box that allows for control of three 250 VAC 3 Amp changeover relays, the TIC instrument controller provides for flexible operation of a wide range of vacuum system measurement and control configurations. Additional features include: direct pressure readout of common gasses (N2, He, Ar, CO2, Kr & Ne) without conversion factors; up to Six 0-10 V buffered analogue outputs; and a user-configurable display options including: Four-character alphanumeric name for each channel and an option to display one, three, or six channels simultaneously.



F30 In-situ Monitor
The Filmetrics F30 in-situ monitor measures deposition rate, layer thickness, optical constants (n and k) and uniformity of semiconductors and dielectric layers in real-time. Applications include MBE, MOCVD, and optical coatings. Smooth and translucent, or lightly absorbing films may be evaluated. The F30 is fully contained outside the process chamber—special lens mounts are available for restricted-access applications. For growing layers, the F30 continuously monitors sample reflectance at one or more wavelengths. The deposited layers optical properties produce unique timedependant interference oscillations in the reflectivity signal. Analysis of these oscillations allow for determination of the layers deposition rate and optical constants. Up to three measurement locations can be measured with a single F30 system.



Filmetrics, Inc.
San Diego, CA
Tel: 1-858-573-9300


DIGISEL In-Situ Laser Ellipsometer Monitors the Thickness and Refractive Index of Single Layer Films
 The HORIBA-Jobin Yvon DIGISEL in-situ laser ellipsometer provides a rapid, accurate quality control solution for the deposition and etch of films in-situ. The DIGISEL takes advantage of an advanced optical design that ensures accurate real-time calculation of the thickness and refractive index of single layer films in-situ. The compact ellipsometric heads are easily mounted onto CVD, electron-beam, MBE, sputtering as well as any other chamber that has an entrance and exit window for the measuring beam. The DIGISEL is simple to operate and adaptable to many types of processes, and is the tool of choice for simplifying everyday process characterization and development for demanding research and industrial quality control applications. Key applications include: thickness monitoring; growth and etch rates; endpoint detection; surface damage; and contamination. Due to its very high sensitivity in-situ ellipsometry is ideal for investigating any change in surface properties, such as oxide formation, chemisorption, surface contamination or protein adsorption very accurately, in real-time. Inclusion of the DIGISEL as part of a process monitoring system supplies precise thin film process information for a competitive edge in a vast array of applications. The DIGISEL may be included with the MultiCPM process metrology platform, and used together with the DIGILEM interferometric end point detection system, the TDM-200 polarimetric camera and DIGICPM optical emission system.
LEM: In-Situ Etch/Deposition Rate Monitor and Endpoint Detector
HORIBA Jobin Yvon’s LEM interferometer for insitu etch rate monitoring and end point detection. The LEM is the next step from the previous SOFIE DigiLem. With its new compact design and enhanced image quality, the LEM can be mounted on any process chamber with a direct top view of the wafer. It provides a real-time digital CCD image of the sample surface, making its 30 mm laser beam positioning simple and accurate. Based on interferometry technique, the LEM provide in-situ etch/deposition rate monitoring for endpoint detection of a wide range of applications. Depending on the configuration selected, the LEM can provide a simple analog signal output for analysis with an external software, or can be delivered with our state-of-the-art APC software -SIGMA-P© - for accurate etch/deposition rate, trench depth and process statistical calculations. By using simply a TTL trigger and our optional pattern recognition software, the LEM can be easily interfaced to any process chamber for an operator free process monitoring and end point detection.


MM-16: Spectroscopic Ellipsometer for Real Time Thin Film Deposition Monitoring
 HORIBA Jobin Yvon’s MM-16 is a highly accurate, sensitive and affordable spectroscopic ellipsometer that extends the capabilities of classical ellipsometry. The MM-16 provides real time monitoring of your film thickness, optical constants and composition. It can be mounted on any PVD, ALD, and MBE vacuum chamber or can be used in conjunction with our electrochemical liquid cell or sample heating stage. In addition to the ellipsometric measurements, the MM-16 is the only ellipsometer on the market to provide in one single acquisition, the 16 components of the Mueller matrix. This unique feature allows the user to measure in real time, optical birefringence and depolarization effects and to quantify accurately their variations as the film grows. These complex materials properties are widely used in optical coatings, display, biotechnology, packaging and semiconductor applications. The MM-16 covers the visible to NIR spectral range in just 1 second allowing extremely fast measurements necessary for in-situ applications. Combined with the embedded analysis software—DeltaPsi2© — the MM-16 is the ideal spectroscopic ellipsometer for fast and accurate monitoring of your deposition processes. The MM-16 can also be used as bench top configuration including automatic variable angle of incidence and X-Y mapping stage for quick films thickness uniformity measurements.
HORIBA-Jobin Yvon
 Edison, NJ
Tel: 1-866-jobinyvon (toll free) or 1-732 494 8660




Thin Film Deposition Controller for Maximum Throughput in OLED Applications
 INFICON’s CygnusThin Film Deposition Controller maximizes process capability and flexibility for OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) applications in the production of flat panel displays. Cygnus Thin Film Deposition Controller is unique in its ability to precisely control the ratios of up to six materials independently, or in any combination, with a rate resolution of 0.01 Å per second. This accuracy, powered by ModeLock—the patented INFICON quartz crystal measurement technology, is critical to the low-density materials and low deposition rates associated with OLED processes. As substrates are cycled through the system, flexible deposition sequencing allows continuous rate control and saves valuable production time by eliminating the need to reheat source material with every substrate. Automatic Zratio determination, or Auto Z, increases the accuracy of thickness and rate control and eliminates the need for the user to estimate the acoustic impedance (Z) ratio. This is especially important for maintaining thickness and rate accuracy for materials where the Z-ratio is not known. Extensive logic I/O features provide comprehensive process control integration. Cygnus also offers up to three digital to analog outputs per source – source power, rate, and thickness. The user can identify the true thickness deposited on the substrate from multiple sources through the Cygnus thickness-summing feature. Applications software provides complete programming of one or multiple Cygnus Controllers from a PC, using RS232 or IEEE interface.
Thin Film Deposition Controller for Enhanced Process Control Integration
The INFICON IC/5 Thin Film Deposition Controller maximizes process capability and flexibility for evaporation and other physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. Extensive logic I/O features provide comprehensive process control integration. The IC/5 can store up to 50 processes and 250 total layers, and storage is unlimited with the floppy disk option. Its data logging capability stores layer and process data in a convenient ASCII format for post-run analysis and process recipes for easy use retrieval and loading. The IC/5 offers control of multiple s o u r c e s , crucibles, materials, c r y s t a l s e n s o r s a n d processes in a user selectable flexible matrix. It also controls the improved multiple crystal sensor head, “CrystalSix.” With CrystalSix, the user can dedicate crystals to specific materials for more precise rate and thickness control. For longer depositions, the CrystalSix provides process continuity by automatically rotating to pre-selected back-up positions should the crystal fail. Multiple sensor measurement technology integrates the measurements of up to eight sensors to minimize the affect of source distribution variations. Especially critical for optical processes such as ophthalmic coatings, the IC/5’s multiple sensor measurement achieves highly accurate and reproducible rate and thickness measurements from one run to the next. The IC/5 co-deposition feature offers the ability to control the deposition of two materials simultaneously. It has a programmable ratio parameter to control alloy percentages over varying rates, as well as a cross-sensitivity (or cross-talk) parameter that automatically compensates for situations in which material from one source is deposited onto sensors used to control the other source.
 XTC/3 Thin Film Deposition Controller for Advanced,
Affordable Rate Control for Single or Multiple Layers
 INFICON’s XTC/3 thin film deposition controller provides highly accurate control of deposition rate and thickness in an affordable, easy to install package. The XTC/3 with patented ModeLock provides proven mode hop prevention for consistent quality. This unique oscillator technology measures films with greater precision than conventional techniques. The flexible XTC/3 is available in two models with the capacity for up to 99 processes and 999 layers, easy installation, high reliability to ensure productivity and a choice of freestanding or PC control. The XTC/3 works with the INFICON Crystal 12TM, Crystal Six®, and dual sensors for automatic replacement of crystals for continuous deposition rate monitoring. The compact, _ rack XTC/3 has an easy-to-read TFT LCD display. For maximum uptime, expert support is available through the INFICON global service network.


Affordable, High Quality INFICON Quartz Crystals Available in Several Sizes, Frequencies and Packages
INFICON Quartz Crystals are available in 5 and 6 MHz with silver, gold or stress-reducing alloy electrodes and a variety of packages. INFICON quartz crystals are produced to stringent specifications and carefully inspected to assure high yields and optimum reliability. A high-level of available inventory means INFICON quartz crystals are available for immediate and long-term requirements. To ensure maximum lifetime in the process and stable and accurate rate control, each crystal is examined for impedance, frequency, curvature and visual conformity. The AT-cut plano-convex design reduces errors in deposition rate and thickness by minimizing spurious vibrational modes or mode-hopping.


East Syracuse, NY
Tel: 1-315-434-1100



MDC-260 Low-Cost, Compact Controller
The Maxtek, A Division of INFICON, MDC-260 is a lowcost, compact and easy to use controller with enough capability to handle most complex applications. The MDC-260 provides two sensor inputs, two source outputs, eight fully programmable I/Os and it includes many features such as automatic crystal switching, pocket position control, rate establish and multiple rate ramps to name a few.
The MDC-260 is available in either a 3.5-inch high desktop case, a half-rack case or a full-rack case. Despite its compact size, the MDC-260 provides a large and easy to read color LCD display for programming and run-time status. The run screens include four real-time graphs, two status screens and the main run screen with oversized fonts for clear and easy viewing from a distance. The MDC-260 has high measurement resolution combined with PID tuning and fast update rate for precise rate control down to 0.1 angstrom/second. The MDC-260 is also designed to work with Maxtek’s new VPLO-6 Vacuum Phase Lock Oscillator, which provides longer crystal life, improved rate stability and a true indication of crystal health. Programming the MDC-260 is easy with an intuitive menu structure, a built in material library and the alpha numeric keypad. In a few short steps, the MDC-260 automatically creates the required control inputs and outputs for multi-pocket sources, source shutters and single, dual and multi-crystal sensor heads. Plain English condition statements help you program user-defined inputs, outputs and actions instead of confusing numeric codes and ladder logic. You can even name your inputs, outputs, processes and materials to make them more recognizable. The MDC-260 is also compatible with Maxtek’s DCM-250 data logging software to make programming, operation and data archiving even easier.



TM-350 and TM-400 Thin Film Deposition Monitors
The Maxtek, A Division of INFICON TM-350 and TM-400 thin film deposition monitors are designed for reliability, low cost and ease of use yet still provide all of the capabilities necessary for manual control of the deposition process. The TM-350 is an entry-level, low cost multi-film monitor with a long list of standard features making it suitable for all the most demanding applications. The TM-400 has all of the features of the TM-350 with the added benefits of 16 times better measurement resolution and dual sensor head capability. These added features make the TM-400 suitable for critical applications requiring greater accuracy and the added security of automatic crystal switching upon failure. The TM-400’s dual sensors also allow the use of one crystal for one material further improving its accuracy for multi-layer applications. Both units are available as a desktop model, 1/2 rack and full rack mount options.




MDC-360C Averaging Deposition Rate Controller
 The Maxtek, A Division of INFICON MDC-360C Averaging Deposition Rate Controller is the latest addition to the popular MDC line of thin film deposition rate controllers. The MDC-360C’s most distinguishing feature is it’s ability to measure up to six crystals at one time, significantly reducing measurement errors due to changes in vapor distribution. In addition, made the MDC-360C deposition rate controller even easier to program using collapsible menus that hide unused parameters where possible. Improvements to the already powerful input and output programming include the addition of logical softnodes and internal event counters. We even added a sensor calibration mode to make the process easier. In keeping with the “ease of use” concept, the MDC-360C deposition rate controller still retains the look and feel of the MDC-360 deposition rate controller with large LED displays for important run-time values, a COLOR LCD display for graphs of rate, rate deviation, thickness and deposit power, an easy to use menu-driven user interface providing unparalleled access to plain-English programming of processes, materials, inputs and outputs.
Maxtek Inc., A Division of INFICON
Cypress, CA
Tel: 1-714-828-4200



Thin Film Coating Instrumentation
Nor-Cal offers an extensive selection of commonly used quartz crystal feedthroughs, sensors and multi-channel monitors, cables, quartz crystals, accessories and replacement parts for use in semiconductor, optical and industrial thermal deposition processes. Custom feedthroughs are available with a variety of flanges in all sizes. Our coating instrumentation products support one of the more popular methods of thin film measurement and rate control the crystal monitor, which utilizes the piezoelectric properties of a quartz crystal. The electrical characteristics of the crystal, which is held in place by the sensor, change during deposition. Single sensors are generally used for short deposition runs, whereas, dual sensors allow for longer runs. Dual sensors require an airline to operate a pneumatic shutter which covers one crystal at a time. The sensor is either welded to the feedthrough or attached with connectors. Most sensors are available with cooling lines. The application determines the correct choice of sensor. The sensor determines compatible feedthroughs and cabling. The chamber determines the appropriate feedthrough and flange. For application temps up to 150°C, electrical connection between the sensor and feedthrough is accomplished with a vacuum coaxial cable. A bakeable, one piece sensor/feedthrough replaces the standard in-vac cable with a stainless steel high-temp coaxial line for high temperature applications up to 300°C. The feedthrough is the air-to-vacuum connection between the sensor and the oscillator. The feedthrough transfers the quartz crystal’s piezo-electric vibrations to the oscillator via a short coaxial cable. The oscillator conditions the signals and transfers them to the monitor via another coaxial cable. The monitor then measures, interprets and displays the thickness, rate and frequency of deposition. Nor-Cal’s thin film deposition monitors are available with up to six independent channels to read six single sensors or three dual sensors simultaneously. Each sensor requires its own cabling and oscillator. Contact our sales staff for help with your system configuration.


Nor-Cal Products, Inc.
Yreka, CA
Contact: Jacquie Daniel
Tel: 1-530- 841-9153


Q-Pod ™ QCM Transducer
Sigma Instruments, the innovative supplier of thin film deposition monitors and controllers, has introduced the simplest and least expensive QCM ever available. The Q-podQCM Transducer connects any QCM sensor/feedthrough directly to the user's PC through a standard USB port. No other instrument is required. The Q-pod is powered by the USB port, weighs less than 2 ounces, and is small enough to fit in a shirt pocket (not our recommended mounting, however). Windows® - based software is included with the Qpod, for operation and data logging. The software displays rate, thickness, frequency, crystal life, and a graph of rate versus time, for up to 8 Q-pods simultaneously. Q-pod readings can be logged to disk in spreadsheet friendly comma-delimited format. The Q-pod is ideal for universities and research applications where only a simple thin film measurement may be needed. Priced at only $500, the Q-podprovides the capabilities of a traditional QCM at a fraction of the size and cost.




SQM,-242 Thin Film Controller PC Card 
Sigma Instruments, a supplier of QCM-based monitors and controllers, also offers the SQM-242 Thin Film Controller on a PCI Card. The SQM-242 Card plugs into a standard PCI expansion card slot, to turn a PC into a full-function thin film co-deposition controller. The SQM-242 Card is a low-cost solution for OEMs and system integrators to build deposition control into a thin film process system. Each SQM-242 Card monitors up to four quartz crystal sensors, and provides two PID source control outputs for controlling power supplies and deposition rates. Deposition rate for each material is controlled by its own separate control loop. The card can control deposition of one or two materials sequentially, or simultaneously (co-deposition). The card’s low cost makes it practical to use as a QCM monitor only, for up to 4 quartz sensors, to simply monitor deposition rate and thickness. Windowsbased software is included with the SQM-242 to setup and operate basic thin film processes. Source code, and LabView and Visual Basic programs are also provided. Optional software provides graphing and additional process control capabilities.


EIES-IV Guardian ™ Thin Film Controller
Sigma Instruments, a supplier of QCM-based thin film deposition monitors and controllers, now offers a thin film controller based on the principle of Electron Impact Emission Spectrometry. The EIES-IV Guardianwas developed in collaboration with the original inventor of EIES, Dr. Larry Lu, of C Lu Laboratories. In EIES, the materialbeing deposited is thermally excited, which creates photons in proportion to the amount of material present. A photodetector measures the light emitted, which translates into the deposition rate of the material. Multiple materials are controlled by monitoring each material's unique optical emission spectra. The Guardian integrates EIES with Sigma's field-proven thin film process control software and a Windows-based PC, to expand the capabilities of EIES for today's complex films. For users of older Sentinel® EIES systems, Sigma's EIES-IV Guardian is compatible with Sentinel® sensors, to ease the cost of upgrading. The Guardian can control deposition rates from 0.1 to 10,000 Å/s. It operates one or two sensors, up to 8 optical inputs and controls up to 6 deposition sources, enabling co-deposition of up to 6 materials. The EIES-IV Guardian is ideal for applications such as fabrication of OLEDs, photovoltaics, superconducting thin films, and MBE. Note: Sentinel® is a registered trademark of INFICON.


SQC-300 Series Thin Film Controllers
 Sigma Instruments’ SQC-300 Series controllers are low cost, high accuracy, controllers for multi-layer thin film deposition. The basic SQC-300 Series controller monitors two quartz crystal sensors, provides two PID control outputs to control source power supplies, and includes eight digital inputs and eight relay outputs. An optional expansion card doubles capacity to 4 sensor inputs, 4 source outputs, and 16 digital inputs/outputs.S i m u l t a n e o u s control of up to four materials (co-deposition) is available as an option. A new frequency measurement technique achieves ±0.03 Hz resolution at 10 readings per second, with ±2 ppm/°C temperature coefficient over 0 to 50°C—especially important for low deposition rates and thickness. The SQC-300 Series is available in either 3.5- or 5.25-inch half-rack models, both with a bright activematrix color display. USB and RS-232 are standard. Ethernet is available as an option. A Windows program for data acquisition, graphing, and storage is included. Prices start under $2000.




Sigma Instruments.
Fort Collins, CO
Tel: 1-970-416-9660
E-mail: info@sig-inst.com 


Model 880 Deposition Controller
 Telemark’s Model 880 Controller is based on a multi-microprocessor design, which provides the best combination of resolution (high) and update speed (fast) on the market. The unit has four slots for I/O cards that can house either an input card (8 optically isolated inputs) or an output card (8 form-C SPDT relays). The sensor-head/source-control modules provide two channels each for crystal frequency measurement and two separate, isolated, analog 0 to 10 volt (plus and minus) outputs for source control. The 880 can house four such modules, supporting up to eight channels of sensor input and 8 analog outputs, and enabling averaging and co-deposition functions. Advanced measurement technique provides high accuracy at constant 100 ms measurement period. RS232/485 interface standard, industrial fields busses optional. Flash memory removable module option for transferring process recipes, and for back-up in case of failure. Thickness display is 0.000 to 999.9 kA and the rate display is 0.0 to 999 Å/s. Source outputs are ± 2.5, 5, 10 volts @ 10 mA with 4 user definable function keys.
Fremont, CA
Contact: Gerald G. (Gary) Henderson
Tel: 1-510-887-2225
E-mail: sales@tfi-telemark.com


 Quartz Crystal Deposition Controller
The cost-effective and high functionality CRTM Series of quartz crystal oscillator deposition controllers from ULVAC Technologies includes the CRTM-9000 and CRTM-6000. The CRTM-9000 provides simultaneous multi-element evaporation control and ultra-low rate deposition control for multi-layer thin films. This crystal oscillation controller provides high resolution to 0.005Å, a multi-layer calculation for excellent film thickness results, an improved life span, simultaneous four element deposition control, and a flexible deposition program with up to 30 phases. The half-rack, high-speed CRTM-6000 provides film thickness control, deposition rate control, power control before and after deposition, and multilayer deposition control for applications that require multi-layer thin film deposition with high resolution. This controller features high resolution of 0.04 Å, high speed sampling rate of 125 milliseconds, a long life oscillator, a processing program that permits continuous deposition of up to 99 layers and an RS-232C interface.



  MIESEC Non-contact Accurate, Cost-Effective Measurement of Metal Film Thickness
ULVAC Technologies, Inc.’s MESEC, a new metal film metrology instrument for copper seed and electroplated copper layers on 200- or 300-mm silicon wafers. Designed for use in PVD, CVD, plating, and CMP equipment applications, the MESEC unit directly evaluates device wafers using the non-contact, non-destructive eddy current detection method. Copper films with thickness in the range of 0.03 µm to 5 µm can be measured with the higher speed, better accuracy, and at significantly lower cost than other methods. ULVAC’s proprietary amplifier circuit design in the MESEC unit enhances the Eddy current signal to noise ratio resulting in improved measurement accuracy. Additionally, ULVAC uses a small sensor, which strikes a good balance between spatial resolution requirements and background noise elimination. ULVAC has developed two types of the MESEC units: Built-in Type (MESEC BIT) and Stand-alone Type (MESEC SAT). The MESEC BIT is designed for in-situ measurements in thin film deposition systems and surface preparation equipment. The MESEC SAT is a freestanding metrology instrument that measures any thin conductive metals or alloy films (Al, Cu, AlCu, etc.) on silicon wafers. This unit features an open cassette, SMIF or FOUP load port design and is used for in-line or off-line measurements.


ULVAC Technologies, Inc.
Methuen, MA
Tel: 1-978-686-7550
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